Social Studies S3: Theme 4, Chapter 6 - Managing Peace and Security



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1 Theme 4: Managing International Relations Chapter 6: Managing Peace and Security Deterrence and Diplomacy Causes for conflicts between countries Competing territory 1 Control over certain tracts of land may mean a lot if it is crucial to its defence of pride 2 Control extending by certain countries by taking control of territories not belonging to them a Area claimed by two or more countries, conflicts arise 3 India inherited frontier drawn by British when it gained independence a China d
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  1 SELF_NOTES/HUMANITIES/SOCIAL_STUDIES/TOPIC_BY_TOPIC/GAMILEO TENG Theme 4: Managing International RelationsChapter 6: Managing Peace and SecurityDeterrence and DiplomacyCauses for conflicts between countriesCompeting territory 1   Control over certain tracts of land may mean a lot if it is crucial to its defence of pride2   Control extending by certain countries by taking control of territories not belonging to thema   Area claimed by two or more countries, conflicts arise3   India inherited frontier drawn by British when it gained independencea   China disagreed to frontier b   Difficult to have a clear frontier as it lays between inaccessible Himalayasc   Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agency  areas of conflictd   China was unwilling to negotiate seriously over the matter and did not want adefinite boundarye   When China built a road built a road on the Aksai Chin Plateau, India protested,saying that it invaded their territory China responded by saying that no definiteborder was defined but India argued that it was clearly definedf   Fighting broke out on Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agencyg   When China took up more of what India deemed as its land, India demanded for thereturn of the land Refusing, China initiated warh   Agreement in 2005 was signed between India and China to address the border issuefairly and reasonablyConflict over scarceresources1   Natural resources such as land, water, water, oil and fish are divided unequally in the worlda   Countries with less may use force to get more, especially if their livelihood dependson it2   Iceland and Britain·s conflicta   Fishermen from European countries were overfishing around Iceland, resultingdecreased fish stocksb   After looking for help from the UN, Iceland extended its area of control over fishinggrounds from 50 to 200 nautical miles beyond its shoresc   No country could fish within the boundary with Iceland·s permissiond   Britain refused to acknowledge the new boundary and Iceland cut diplomatic tieswith Britain in February 1976e   Ties were restored in June 1967 on an agreement:  2 SELF_NOTES/HUMANITIES/SOCIAL_STUDIES/TOPIC_BY_TOPIC/GAMILEO TENG i   Britain to catch a maximum amount of fish with a maximum of 24 trawlerswithin the boundary at any one timeii   Iceland·s patrol vessels are allowed to stop and inspect British trawlerssuspected of violating the agreementiii   After 6 months, Britain would no longer be able to fish within the boundaryConflict over ideologicaldifferences1   Different values and beliefs2   North Korea and South Koreaa   Korea was first occupied by Japan before WWIIb   In 1945, Japanese troops left when they were defeated in the war c   Korea was divided by two halves at the 38 th Parallel: Northern controlled by USSRand South by the USAd   UN called for election in 197 to establish single government for unification, butUSSR refused and installed a communist regime to be known as the DemocraticPeople·s Republic of Korea in the Northe   1948: Independent Republic of Korea formed with support of the USAf   North Korea invaded the South in 1950 to reunify the Korean Peninsula, under communismg   Fearing the North would spread communism, USA + its allies and the UN defendedSouth Koreah   UN counter-attacked and pushed North Korean and Chinese forces backi   1951: China feared for its national interest and joined the war, aiding the North inpushing the UN troops back to the south1953: Agreement to stop the fighting was signed by all parties and a demilitarised zone wascreated at the 38 th parallelDeterrenceA citizen armed force 1   Singapore could not afford a large professional army in 19652   Population was only 2 million, of which most have to work to boost economic growth  shortage of manpower 3   Enlisted able-bodied men into army4   1967: National Service introduceda   Singaporeans learn to defend their own countriesb   Helps Singaporean men bond through shared experience  3 SELF_NOTES/HUMANITIES/SOCIAL_STUDIES/TOPIC_BY_TOPIC/GAMILEO TENG c   Develop sense of loyalty, patriotism and shared destiny5   Upon completing full-time NS, men would continue to serve in the citizen armed forceas Operationally Ready NS men for another 10 years, a maximum of 40 days per year a   During this training, they would be undergoing refresher courses to maintaincompetence in handling new weapons and equipmentsb   Learn tactics of war 3 rd Generation SingaporeArmed Forces1   Warfare became complex with recent advances in info-communication technologies2   SAF should continually enhance capabilities and review its method of warfarethrough research and development3   Project with research institutes of Ministry of Defence and local universities wasinitiated to develop the 3 rd generation SAFa   Maximising defensive capabilities through modern technologiesb   Equips soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibility in peacetime4   Create an intelligent defence force where surveillance and strike systems operatetogether for early intelligence to destroy enemy without them locating usSingapore·s Defence Industry 1   Army needs to use latest technology and equipment to develop army into an effectivefighting force2   Enable SAF to be self-reliant in essential defence weapons and equipment3   Defence industry started in 1967 when Chartered Industries of Singapore established ² produce small arms ammunitionsa   Successful defence company now ² subsidiaries: SembCorp Industries andSembCorp Logistics4   Defence Science and Technology Agency formed in 2000 ² provide cost-effective andmodern technology to SAF and Ministry of Defencea   Focuses on buying and upgrading weapons; and developing new weaponsystems for SAFb   Conducts defence-related research and development activities with other countries and local tertiary institutions5   Improves capability and effectiveness of SAFa   Powerful defence forceb   Overcome constrains through innovationTotal Defence 1   1984: Involve everyone in defence of country2   Defence is only effective when all Singaporeans believe that Singapore is worthdefending