Bahay Kubo PCA 2, 2015

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  1 CL AVENDAÑO - HOA 4, 3 rd  sem AY 2014-15 COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE University of Santo Tomas HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 4 3 rd  Semester AY 20154-2015 PRE-COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE, Lecture 2 BAHAY/BALAI      Bahay   evolved from the word “BALAI” -  which means house    Southeast Asian type of domestic architecture   Hill, sea, mountain, river, field, plains, etc    BAHAY KUBO, Nipa Hut/House Prototype in the lowlands all over the Philippines and even in the uplands which varies according to location, regional and ethnic lines of the people •   Kobo     –  Tagalog •   Kubu   ( balungbung  ) - Kampangpangan word for hut, cabin or lodge •   Dangpa, cuala, saung  –   shepherd’s hut •   Kubo  - Spanish word for “cube”  Height of the walls is equal to its width - gives a boxy appearance or a cube-shaped housed   Structure of light materials supported by posts elevated from 25 m to 50 m from the ground - moist ground and the flood - protection from vermin and other animals of the low ground   Built close to each other as a community and to serve the defensive need of the inhabitants   Construction method and features: 1 Assembling is like basket making 2 Parts are woven, fitted, inserted, coiled, tied or basket stitched together using nearly the same materials in producing a basket 3 Consists of various kinds of wood, rattan, cane, bamboo, palm, nipa, bark or cogon 4 Roof can be assembled on the ground 5 Steep roofs either of gable ( dos agues ) or hip ( quarto agues ) type made extensively of nipa shingles or cogon thatched 6 Molave is the favored wood for house post ( haligi  ) 7 Posts stand in a variety of ways: - Holes may be dug and posts inserted in, sometimes kept firmly in place by a circle of buried rocks - Mount the posts on flat on stone slabs 8 Floor is of bamboo slats or timber spaced from each other at regular intervals - Light and air to pass through even if the windows are closed - Vegetables to ripen - Conducive for sleeping - Even to throw waste matter out through the gaps 9 Wall sidings are assembled on the ground and are made of: - Flattened split bamboo woven together into herringbone patterns to form sawali   - In Papangkol     –  two panels of vertical-split bamboo are clamped together for the panels to grip each other, keeping the rain from coming in - Samil   refers to several layers of nipa leaflets that have been combed lengthwise over bamboo slats - Coconut leaves, cogon grass and anahaw palm leaves - Wall sidings surround the house posts and stand independently - Sidings of the walls are kept in place with the help of the rattan lashings, horizontal bamboo studs clamp the sidings together on both sides and at the same time, the studs enter through holes into the sidings’ vertical support: the bamboo poles that stand between the roof beams and the floor sill  2 CL AVENDAÑO - HOA 4, 3 rd  sem AY 2014-15 10 Silong  , the space underneath the house is an airy siding woven by passing bamboo strips that are long and thin over and under horizontal studs in alternate sequence, called “salá”  11 Doors are of “salá” and are attached to a post with rattan hinges  12 Windows of the awning-type have nipa or buri-palm window coverings that can either slide from side to side or pushed out by a pole that serves also as support when at rest 13 Usually no ceilings nor room divisions, however when required, room partitions are low and do not reach the underside of the roof or the ceiling to allow the circulation of air within the house Terminology: Gililan    –  floor sills run around the outermost periphery of the soleras to support the walls Halige    –  house posts Kahab-an    –  connects the bottom ends of the rafters together Kilo    –  rafters Palatpat    –  bamboo strips tied on to the rafters with rattan vines as the mainsupports of the roofing Palupo    –  ridge pole Patukuran    –  beam laid over the yawi at right angle, thus completing the perimeter Pawid    –  nipa shingles made by stripping leaves from the petiole and bending them Sahig    –  slatted floor Rattan or bamboo strips tie the different parts to each other Sikang    –  poles which cross the rafters halfway down the slope Soleras  - floor joists are laid Tarugo    –  wooden peg over a narrow bamboo slats  Yawi - master beam which runs from one post to the other and is lashed to with rattan •  Bahay Kubo is single room with an open plan which can be transformed into different spaces at different times of the day, but later partitions where added The Bahay Kubo has evolved during the Spanish Period and at present Parts of the House: 1 Bulwagan (Living Room) The custom was to sit on mats spread out on the floor, sometimes around the dulang  , low table Chairs and tables were still unknown 2 Silid   (Sleeping Area) Sawali partition divides the bulwagan  and silid   where chests and woven trunks (tampipi) keep clothes and personal belongings Some houses have no furnishing except for a few  –  papag or built in bed, dulang, a low table, bangko or bench, 3 Paglutuan or gilir   which may sometimes be a separate structure where food is prepared Dapogan  –  consists of table, river stones and a shoe-shaped stove (kalan) 4 Bangahan   or banguerra     –  pots, dishes and other utensils are kept 5 Batalan     –  porch which opens from the paglutuan 6 Silong   - Lower part of the house is used as an enclosure for keeping domesticated animals such as swine and fowl and storage for household implements, goods, crops and is some cases as burial grounds for the dead 7 Kamalig     –  separate storehouse on stilts where unhulled rice is kept BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alarcon, Norma I Philippine Architecture During the Pre-Spanish and Spanish Periods  UST Publishing House 1998 CCP Encyclopedia of Arts Vol II  I  Manila,Philippines/1994  3 CL AVENDAÑO - HOA 4, 3 rd  sem AY 2014-15 Fernandez, Honrado The Arc  hitecture of the Philippines “Traditions and Changing Expressions” Transforming Traditions  Asian Studies Publication Series 2001 p115-160 Hila, Ma Corazon C An Essay on Philippines Ethnic Architecture  CCP 1992 Klassen, Winand 1986 Architecture in the Philippines Filipino Building in a Cross-Cultural Contex  t Cebu City, Philippines: University of San Carlos Lico, Gerald Arkitekturang Pilipino A History of Architecture and Urbanism in the Philippine University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City2008 Tiongson, Nicanor, ed Tuklas Sining Essays on the Philippine Arts  CCP, Manila 1991 Turalba, Maria Cristina V Philippine Heritage Architecture before 1521 to the 1970s  Anvil Publishing House Pasay City 2005 http://wwwfilipinoheritagecom/arts/architecture/early-shelters5htm http://historyofarchitectureweeblycom/vernacular-houseshtml Other Internet sources Prepared by:  AR CLARISSA L AVENDAÑO Revised - June 16, 2015