A Grammar of Mandarin Chinese Lincom Europa



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   Grammar of Mandarin Chinese Hua Lin Languages of the World Materials 44 2 1 LINCOM EUROPA  Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP Cataloguing-in-Publication-Data A catalogue record for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek http://wwwddbde   Published by LINCOM EUROPA 2001 All correspondence concerning Languages of the World/Materials should be addressed to: LINCOM EUROPA Fret adstr 3 D-81543 Muenchen NCOM EUROPAt-onlinede http://homet-onlinedefhome/LINCOMEUROPA wwwlincom-europacom FAX 49 89 6226 9404 All rights reserved, including the rights of translation into any foreign language, No part of this book may be reproduced in any way without the permission of the publisher Edited by Ulrich J LUders Printed in E C Printed on chlorine-free paper ISBN 3 89586 64 3  Table of ontents CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 1 BRIEF HISTORY L2 HE CHINESE DIALECTS 2 5 1 2 1 he Northern Dialect 7 1 2 2 ue 1 2 3 itt 14 1 2 4 ejia 17 1 2 5 u 19 CHAPTER 2 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY 23 2 1 HE SOUNDS 24 2 1 1 onsonants 25 2 1 2 owels 26 2 2 HE SYLLABLE 27 2 2 1 he Initial And the Final 29 2 2 2 honotactic Constraints 2 3 HE PROCESSES 36 2 3 1 onsonants 37 2 3 2 owels 39 2 3 3 inyin and IPA 41 2 4 HE TONES 44 2 4 1 asic Tones 44 2 4 2 eutral Tone 48 CHAPTER 3 MORPHOLOGY 52 3 1 HE MORPHEME 52 3 1 1 onosyllabicity 52 3 1 2 ree and Bound 54 32 HE WORD 55 3 3 ORD STRUCTURE 3 3 1 ffixation 56 3 3 2 ompounding 62 3 3 3 eduplication 69 3 3 4 bbreviations 78 3 3 5 isyllabicity 82 34 OMOPHONES 84 34 ucky and Taboo Expressions 85 3 5 ORD STRESS 86 3 5 1 eaningful Stress 87 3 6 RANSLITERATION OF FOREIGN WORDS 88 3 6 1 ound Route 89 3 6 2 eaning Route 90 3 6 3 ound and Meaning Combined 91 3 6 4 rom Cantonese 92 CHAPTER 4PARTS OF SPEECH 94 41 ounis 96